The proposal of Open Science is to foster new approaches to research and scholarly communication. It represents a composite concept, due to the various topics covered and, most of all, for the cultural change implied. It may be summarized using four keywords: networks, data, cooperation, and transparency.
The European Commission has made a precise choice to sustain Open Science, realizing the European Open Science Cloud, a shared infrastructure to support various innovative services for the scientific community and the citizenship. The theoretical principles are stated in the EOSC Declaration, while the EOSC Roadmap offers more operative indications. Horizon2020 represents the financial support of the EC to achieve the goals of Open Science.
Open Access and Open Data are the two main applications. Open Access tackles the shortcomings of the current publishing system, while Open Data opens to the dissemination of the "raw materials" of research. The other contents supported by Open Science entails the opening up of learning materials, the sharing of research methodologies such as open notebooks, a radical change in research assessment and peer-review, the opening up of science to citizens.
Practicing Open Science means being aware of the alternatives proposed and the tools available. Bianca Kramer and Jeroen Bosman (Utrecht University) sketched the "Rainbow of the open science practices", i.e. guidelines to demonstrate how it is possible to make open every step in the research process:
- Altmetrics for alternative measures of the impact
- Twitter to communicate on social media
- Figshare to share posters and presentations
- Creative Commons to use open licenses for self-archiving and publishing on open journals
- PubPeer or F1000 to try the open peer-review
- OSF, Arxiv o Biorxiv to share pre-prints
- Jupiter o CoCalc to apply machine-readable formats
- Overleaf o Autore for collaborative writing
- Protocols.io to share protocols and workflows
- OpenNotebook Science to share notes and lab-notes
- GitHub to share software code
- Dryad, Zenodo o Dataverse to share data
- OSF o AsPredicted to pre-record experiments
- Hypothes.is to make comments on webpages
- Zotero for shared bibliographies
- RIO Journal to share research projects
TU Delft and the European project Foster 4 Plus proposes relevant guidelines for Open Science. The project Foster has elaborated an interesting infographic to explain the concept of Open Science and its principles.
More information and details are provided by the organizations here below.
OpenAIRE is the major infrastructure for the monitoring and the assessment of the OA policies financed by the EU from 2009. OpenAIRE links the results of the research projects (papers, data, software, etc.). Nowadays supplies 16 funders in Europe and worldwide, supports Open Science in all its aspects through the network of National Open Access Desks (NOADs). To know more about ...
RDA - Research Data Alliance is an international organization whose members gathers during scheduled meetings with the purpose of facilitating data sharing and reuse. RDA members are organized in spontaneous and voluntary interest groups gathering twice a year during the Plenary meetings. The RDA European chapter is constituting a network of national nodes with the project RDA Europe 4.0, with the purpose of bringing the needs of national communities in RDA and viceversa. The project finances the participation in RDA through different types of grants. To know more about ...
D4Science is a hardware and software infrastructure based on the gcube toolkit that integrates and manages data from over 50 different suppliers into a single system. The platform offers a wide range of services to its users.To know more about...
IOSSG - Italian Open Science Support Group is a working group gathering different academic representatives, born from the cooperation between professionals with different competencies in the areas: research support, digital libraries, Open Science, law, ICT. Participants come from Open AIRE, University of Milan, University of Venice - Ca' Foscari, Politecnico Milano, University of Turin, Bologna University, University of Trento, University of Parma, University of Padua, University of Wien, University of Trieste. The subscription to IOSSG is on voluntary basis and does not imply any involvement at institutional level. To know more about ...
AISA - Associazione Italiana per la Scienza Aperta (Italian Association for Open Science) is a no-profit organization whose purpose is to disseminate the values and principles of open access to knowledge through the promotion of activities like: papers on Open Science principles; organization of educational activities, networking, participation in research projects, submission of proposals for legislative initiatives to sustain Open Science, etc. To know more about ...
COAR is an international association composed of 140 members and partners worldwide representing libraries, universities, research institutes, national funding agencies, etc. COAR gathers communities and networks of repositories to build innovative services and infrastructures, align practices and policies and give voice at global level to the communities working with repositories. To know more about ...
The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an organization that collaborates with other actors of scientific communication (authors, publishers, libraries ...) to promote open sharing of research results ...To know more about...